Category Archives: Politics

California Governor Vetoes Bill to Revise School Textbook Content Standards

http://www.hinduismtoday.com/blogs-news/hindu-press-international/california-governor-vetoes-bill-to-revise-school-textbook-content-standards/13910.html

http://gov.ca.gov/docs/SB_1057_Veto_Message.pdf

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, September 19, 2014 (HPI): California governor Jerry Brown vetoed Senate Bill 1057 which would have called for the revision of the “Content Standards” which guide the creation of the state’s history-social science books for grades K-12. The Hindu-American community was disappointed with the veto as the bill could have improved the presentation of Hinduism and Indian history in the state’s school system.

In vetoing the bill, the governor said, “This bill would require the State Board of Education to adopt history-social science content standards by July 30, 2018. I agree that providing up to date instructional guidance to educators for use in their classrooms is important. This is precisely why the State Board of Education is currently updating the history-social science framework which is on track to be adopted next spring. I am concerned that this bill may slow progress that is already underway, and does not include a role for the Instructional Quality Commission. For these reasons, I am unable to sign this bill.”

For the full text of the original bill, go to:
http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/fac … l?bill_id=201320140SB1057

***Note from Anna; when a governor regularly and deliberately strives to keep his citizens uneducated it’s always for the purposes of making sure they are never smart enough to fight back when they have been abused. States with more educated people means more states with healthier, stronger, crime-free communities.vote out the politicians who seek to harm their constituents.

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How Insurers Are Finding Ways to Shift Costs to the Sick

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California City Mandates Free Medical Marijuana for Low-Income Residents

http://www.myfoxorlando.com/story/26448599/california-city-mandates-free-medical-marijuana-for-low-income-residents

Posted: Sep 04, 2014 8:50 AM PST Updated: Sep 04, 2014 8:50 AM PST

Weed welfare?

That’s what the Berkeley City Council in California has unanimously approved, ordering medical marijuana dispensaries to donate 2 percent of their stash to patients making less than $32,000 a year.

The new welfare program in the liberal-leaning city is set to launch in August 2015.

The ordinance, which passed in August and is the first of its kind in the country, comes at a time when several states are debating how to handle a growing movement to legalize marijuana for both medical and recreational use.

But Berkeley’s decision to effectively order weed redistribution is prompting a vocal backlash.

Bishop Ron Allen, a former addict and head of the International Faith Based Coalition, told Fox News he doesn’t understand why the California city would want to dump pot on the impoverished.

“It’s ludicrous, over-the-top madness,” Allen said. “Why would Berkeley City Council want to keep their poverty-stricken under-served high, in poverty and lethargic?”

John Lovell, a lobbyist for the California Narcotic Officers’ Association, agrees.

“Instead of taking steps to help the most economically vulnerable residents get out of that state, the city has said, ‘Let’s just get everybody high,’” Lovell told The New York Times.

But others, like Mason Tvert, director of communications at the Marijuana Policy Project, say it’s a community program.

Tvert told Fox News that the decision to provide the drug to some of its low-income residents is up to the community.

“So it’s a matter of the democratic process, people following the state’s laws, and this law appears to accommodate both of those,” he said.

California was the first state to legalize medical marijuana nearly 20 years ago.

California dispensaries are prohibited by law from turning a profit. But some places have been giving pot away to patients who couldn’t pay for years.

One of Berkeley’s largest dispensaries, Berkeley Patients Group, has been doing it for a decade, The New York Times reports. One recipient, Arnie Passman, a poet and activist, said he’s couldn’t remember exactly how long he had been given medical marijuana or why.

“It could be for my allergies, or my arthritis — you know what happens to us folks: We forget,” Passman, 78, told the newspaper.

***Note from Anna: That is the way you create total legalization for the United States.

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July 2014 in Fukushima 98,000,000 Becquerels Leaked from Radioactive Water Tanks

98,000,000 Bq of all β leaked from contaminated water tank

  Fukushima Diary 

On 9/4/2014, Tepco reported they found highly contaminated water leaking from the joint part of two tanks.

 

It was desalinated concentrated water. Cs-134/137 density was 9,800,000 Bq/m3, All β nuclide density to include Sr-90 was 98,000,000,000 Bq/m3.

They found the crack on the joint part. It became clear that contaminated water facilities are being deteriorated.

 

Tepco fixed the crack with bonding agent and plastic bag for emergency measure, however they haven’t announced any fundamental resolution for the deterioration of the entire facilities.

They comment the leaked volume was only 1L.

 

2 98,000,000 Bq of all β leaked from contaminated water tank

 

98,000,000 Bq of all β leaked from contaminated water tank

 

 

http://photo.tepco.co.jp/date/2014/201409-j/140904-01j.html

http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241395_5851.html

http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241399_5851.html

http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241410_5851.html

http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241411_5851.html

 

 

 

I tried to install a Bitcoin button on the sidebar. Because I don’t have bitcoin, I can’t test it to see if it works. I would be very glad if you use it for a test._____

_____

Français :

98 milliards de Bq de radioactivité β ont fuit d’une citerne

 

Le 4 septembre 2014, Tepco rapporte qu’ils ont découvert une fuite d’eau extrêmement radioactive à la jointure entre deux citernes.

 

Il s’agit d’eau concentrée et désalinisée. La radioactivité en Cs 134/137 était de 9,8 millions de Bq/m³, La radioactivité β, dont du Sr 90 était à 98,000,000,000 (98 milliards) Bq/m³.

Ils ont découvert une fissure sur la partie jointive. Il est devenu clair que les équipements de stockage des eaux extrêmement radioactive se détériorent.

Tepco a réparé la fissure en urgence avec du mastic et des sacs en plastique, ils n’ont néanmoins pas présenté de direction fondamentale à suivre contre la détérioration de tous les équipements.
Ils ont déclaré quel le volume de la fuite n’a été que de 1 litre.

2 98,000,000 Bq of all β leaked from contaminated water tank
98,000,000 Bq of all β leaked from contaminated water tank

http://photo.tepco.co.jp/date/2014/201409-j/140904-01j.html
http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241395_5851.html
http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241399_5851.html
http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241410_5851.html
http://www.tepco.co.jp/cc/press/2014/1241411_5851.html

J’ai essayé de mettre un bouton pour Bitcoin dans la barre de droite. Je ne peux pas le tester parce que je n’ai pas de compte bitcoin. Je serai grandement reconnaissant à celle/celui qui voudra bien l’utiliser pour le tester.

 

 

***NOTE FROM ANNA: Is is very simple. Fukushima nuclear power plant has been saturating the Pacific Ocean with radioactive mixed oxide fuels. It is rapidly spreading to the Atlantic Ocean. No sea water=NO FARMS=no life. PAY ATTENTION!!!

Fukushima/Becquerel radioactivity exposure information:

Conversion chart: http://www.asknumbers.com/RadioactivityConversion.aspx

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel

http://www.oasisllc.com/abgx/effects.htm

http://orise.orau.gov/reacts/guide/measure.htm

http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/understand/health_effects.html

http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/14928/1/Neglis-Aplastic-Anemia.html

http://www.newsweek.com/near-fukushima-report-exclusion-zone-66453

 

 

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National Conference of State Legislatures-State Quarantine and Isolation Statutes

http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-quarantine-and-isolation-statutes.aspx

WHO WE ARE

Bill Pound, NCSL Executive DirectorSince 1975, NCSL has been the champion of state legislatures. We’ve helped states remain strong and independent by giving them the tools, information and resources to craft the best solutions to difficult problems. We’ve fought against unwarranted actions in Congress and saved states more than $1 billion. We’ve conducted workshops to sharpen the skills of lawmakers and legislative staff in every state. And we do it every day.

OUR MISSION

NCSL is committed to the success of all legislators and staff. Our mission is to

  • Improve the quality and effectiveness of state legislatures.
  • Promote policy innovation and communication among state legislatures.
  • Ensure state legislatures a strong, cohesive voice in the federal system.

OUR STORY

U.S. Capitol domeIn 1974, three organizations represented the interests of legislators and staff, but their influence was diluted. So seven inventive legislative leaders and two staffers got together and envisioned a single national organization to support, defend and strengthen state legislatures.

After a survey of lawmakers and staff from around the country confirmed their idea was a good one, the three organizations dissolved, and on Jan. 1, 1975, the National Conference of State Legislatures was born.

HOW WE’RE GOVERNED

The strength of NCSL is our bipartisanship and commitment to serving both Republicans and Democrats. It is recognized in our comprehensive, unbiased research. NCSL serves both legislators and staff. This is reflected in the documents we’ve created to govern our organization and the organization of our Executive Committee:

 

THE STATES’ AGENDA

Lawmakers play a vital role in developing the States’ Agenda, the blueprint for NCSL’s advocacy work on Capitol Hill. Each year, legislators and staff from across the country who participate in NCSL’s eight Standing Committees adopt policies under our rules of procedure for consideration at the annual Business Meeting during the Legislative Summit.

If two-thirds of the states in attendance approve them, these policies become the backbone of NCSL’s efforts to fight unwarranted federal preemption of state laws, unfunded mandates and federal legislation that threatens state authority and autonomy. It’s important work, and NCSL takes its cue from the states. 

State Quarantine and Isolation Statutes

Updated August 2010

Public health quarantine and isolation are legal authorities that may be, but rarely are, implemented to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. Isolation may be used for ill people, to protect the public by preventing exposure to infected people.

Quarantine may be used to restrict the movement of well people who may have been exposed to a communicable disease until it can be determined if they are ill, for example, people who have a communicable disease but do not know it, or may have the disease but do not show symptoms.

The federal government, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has authority to monitor and respond to the spread of communicable diseases across national or state borders.

By Executive Order of the president of the United States, federal isolation and quarantine are authorized for specific communicable diseases: cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), and flu that can cause a pandemic. 

The president can revise this list by Executive Order.   Further information on federal law quarantine authority can be found here. State and local governments have primary responsibility for controlling the spread of diseases within state borders.

The table below summarizes state law authority for quarantine and isolation within state borders, including authority to initiate quarantine and isolation, limitations on state quarantine powers, and penalties for violations.

Use of quarantine or isolation powers may create sensitive issues related to civil liberties. Individuals have rights to due process of law, and generally, isolation or quarantine must be carried out in the least restrictive setting necessary to maintain public health.

Moreover, exercising state or federal power for quarantine or isolation is rarely necessary. CDC reports that: large-scale isolation and quarantine was last enforced during the influenza (“Spanish Flu”) pandemic in 1918–1919. In recent history, only a few public health events have prompted federal isolation or quarantine orders:

  • In 1963, a passenger arriving into the United States was placed under a federal quarantine order as a suspected case of smallpox.
  • In 2007, a traveler with drug-resistant TB was placed in isolation.

During the 2003 outbreak of SARS, CDC did not issue isolation or quarantine orders. However, CDC did conduct active surveillance, visual screening of passengers, and handed out Travel Health Alert notices.

According to a survey conducted for the Trust for America’s Health in 2007, “nearly 9 out of 10 Americans say they would abide by a voluntary quarantine and stay home in the case of an outbreak of a pandemic flu. Willingness to accept this type of quarantine exists across the public at high levels.

Among the 10 percent who say they would not adhere to the government’s request of a voluntary quarantine, most indicate that they could not stay at home due to fears of losing needed income (64 percent) or losing their jobs altogether (39 percent).”

Resources: CDC Division of Global Migration and Quarantine | CDC Public Health Law 101 | Trust For America’s Health

2010 Legislation

 

Bill Info Bill Summary
AZ SB 1197
Did not pass
Would have required that a joint resolution be passed by the legislature, during a state of emergency or war in which there is an occurrence or the imminent threat of smallpox, plague, viral hemorrhagic fevers or a highly contagious and highly fatal disease with transmission characteristics similar to smallpox before orders could be issued to isolate and quarantine persons. It would have not allowed the department of health and its officers or representatives to remove a minor child from the care of their parent or legal guardian if the parent or legal guardian complied with quarantine laws or voluntarily agreed to treat the parent or guardian’s home as quarantine and keep the child isolated in the home.
CA AB 2541/
CA AB 2786
Pending
The department of health would be able to, from time to time, adopt and enforce regulations requiring strict or modified isolation, or quarantine, for any of the contagious, infectious, or communicable diseases, if in the opinion of the department the action is necessary for the protection of public health. The health officer could require strict or modified isolation, or quarantine, for any case of contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, when this action is necessary for the protection of the public health.
FL HB 1783
Enacted
Requires the Department of Health to develop a plan that exclusively uses private and non-state public hospitals to provide treatment to cure, hospitalize, and isolate persons with contagious cases of tuberculosis who pose a threat to the public.
GA HB 185
Did not pass
An individual or a class would have been able to challenge an order of isolation before any available judge of the superior courts in the county where the individual or a member of the class resides or in Fulton County. The Department of Community Health or any party would have been allowed to immediately appeal any order to the Supreme Court.
Would also have allowed the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia to extend a public health emergency order declared by the Governor.
GA HB 228
Enacted
Changes the department that is responsible for quarantine and isolation from the Department of Human Resources to the Department of Community Health.
MA HB 2139
Pending
Relates to Methicillin-Resistant staphylococcus Aureus (“MRSA”). When MRSA is identified, a healthcare facility would have to notify the patient and establish necessary precautions as determined by the health department including, but not limited to, isolation of identified MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected patients.
NJ SB 660
Pending
Relates to Methicillin-Resistant staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE). A health care facility would have to implement written infections prevention and control policy incorporating guidelines, including isolation of identified patients in an appropriate manner.
NY AB 4698/
NY AB 5909/
NY AB 8217/
NY SB 5361
Pending
Would Create the State Emergency Health Powers Act and the Public Health Authority. The Public Health Authority would be able to isolate or quarantine any person whose refusal of medical examination or testing results in uncertainty regarding whether he or she has been exposed to or infected with a contagious disease or poses a danger to public health. Authorities could also isolate or quarantine persons who are unable or unwilling to undergo vaccination against infectious disease. Isolation and quarantine would have to be the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of a contagious disease. Would require the development of a comprehensive plan to provide a coordinated, appropriate response in the event of a public health emergency.
OK HB 2251/
OK HB 2465
Did not pass
Would have given the State Commissioner of Health authority to designate places of quarantine or isolation.
OK SB 968
Did not pass
Would have given the State Commissioner of Health authority to take measures deemed necessary to control or suppress, or to prevent the occurrence or spread of, any communicable, contagious or infectious disease, and provide for the segregation and isolation of persons having or suspected of having the disease. The Commissioner would have had the authority to designate places of quarantine or isolation.
PA HB 462
Pending
Would provide state policy and powers for the public health authority when a public health emergency exists. Emergency powers would include authority to: 1) establish and maintain places of isolation and quarantine and 2) require isolation or quarantine of any person by the least restrictive means necessary to protect the public health. All reasonable means would have to be taken to prevent the transmission of infection among the isolated or quarantined individuals. Isolation or quarantine would be terminated when the public health authority determines that such isolation or quarantine of such person is no longer necessary to protect the public health.
Due Process – Before isolating or quarantining a person, the public health authority would have to obtain a written, ex parte order from a court authorizing the action. A copy of the authorizing order would be given to the person isolated or quarantined, along with notification that the person has a right to a court hearing to contest the ex parte order within 72 hours upon request.
Penalties – A person who fails to comply with the provisions of quarantine and isolation would be considered to have committed a misdemeanor of the third degree.
SC SB 629
Did not pass
Relates to Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A patient who tested positive for MRSA would have had to be isolated if possible.
WA SB 6171
Enacted
To protect public health, the state board of health is required to adopt rules for the imposition and use of isolation and quarantine.
WV HB 3069/
WV SB 157
Did not pass
The Commissioner of the Bureau for Public Health or his or her designated public health officer would have been able to temporarily suspend an exemption for a student who is not immunized and exclude the student from attending school during an outbreak or health emergency. The student would not have been able to return or be admitted to school until the outbreak or health emergency was resolved and the Commissioner of the Bureau for Public Health or his or her designee approved the return to school. When a public health emergency was declared relating to a communicable disease, citizens identified as being infected with the declared disease would have been subjected to humane quarantine using the least restrictive means possible, in order to prevent the spread of disease.

 


State Laws

Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | DelawareFlorida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | KentuckyLouisiana | Maine | Massachusetts | Maryland | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri  | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New YorkNorth Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode IslandSouth Carolina | South Dakota | TennesseeTexas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming | District of Columbia | Guam | Puerto Rico | U.S. Virgin Islands

State/Jurisdiction Statute Citation (Last Amend) Statute Summary
Alabama Ala. Code § 22.12.4 (1981)
Ala. Code § 22.2.2 (1965)
Ala. Code § 22.3.2 (1940)
Authority. The Governor or the State Board of Health may proclaim a quarantine, whenever deemed necessary. The Board of Health shall enforce it and adopt any necessary rules or regulations necessary to do so. They shall also supervise county boards.
Ala. Code § 22.12.9-29 (1940)
Ala. Code § 22.11A.6 (1987)
Penalties. Violation of a health or quarantine law is a misdemeanor unless otherwise noted and is typically subject to a fine of $50 to $500. Such punishment applies to individuals who violate quarantine orders, to those required to provide notification of notifiable diseases who willfully neglect to do so, to anyone who knowingly transports a person or thing in violation of a quarantine, or other such violations of quarantine regulations.
Ala. Code § 22.12.19-26 (1940)
Ala. Code § 22.11A.7 (1987)
Police Power and Limitations. An officer or guard carrying out a quarantine may arrest without warrant anyone who attempts to violate quarantine regulations and move them to the designated detention area or in front of an officer with jurisdiction over the offense. Officers can pass through quarantine lines and have free access to all means of public transportation as needed to perform their duties. Freight and mail can be rejected from a quarantined area. Those with notifiable disease must obey the instructions of state or county health officer.
Alaska Alaska Stat. § 26.23.020 (2004)
Alaska Stat. § 18.15.385 (2005)
Authority. The Governor can declare a disaster emergency, including in the event of a disease outbreak. He or she can control entry and exit of an area and movement of persons or occupancy of premises within the area. The Department of Health and Social Services can quarantine or isolate only if it is the least restrictive alternative to protect public health. An emergency administrative order from the state medical officer can impose quarantine or isolation pending the court order.
Alaska Stat. § 18.15.385 (2005) Penalties. Anyone who knowingly violates a regulation pertaining to quarantine or isolation is guilty of a class B misdemeanor. Anyone who intentionally violates such a regulation is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
Alaska Stat. § 18.15.385 (2005)
Alaska Stat. § 9.50.250 (2008)
Police Power and Limitations. The department must allow isolation in personal home if it would not jeopardize public health. If individuals do not consent to quarantine or isolation, a superior court order must be granted. The department should monitor those in quarantine or isolation and release them as soon as they no longer pose a substantial risk to public health. Improper application of quarantine or isolation, or negligent medical treatment therein, is an actionable claim against the state for compensation.
Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 36.787-789 (2002) Authority. The Governor along with the state director of health services have primary authority in a state of emergency involving possible infectious disease. If investigation reveals a suspicion of a highly contagious disease to be accurate, the state or local health authority may declare a quarantine if it is the least intrusive means of protecting public health. A quarantine or isolation should be established by written court order unless there is an urgent threat to public health, in which case the Department of Health or local health authority can initiate a quarantine by written directive provided they file a petition for court order within ten days. The maximum court order for quarantine is thirty days before requiring a new order.
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 36.630, 737 (1982, 1997) Penalties. Knowingly or intentionally exposing others to infection or attempting to leave quarantine or isolation is a class 2 misdemeanor. Obstructing an investigation, making a false report, or knowingly assisting someone else in violating quarantine is a class 3 misdemeanor.
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 36.624,732 (2002, 1997) Police Power and Limitations. No treatment shall be provided against the will of an individual provided they cooperate with quarantine and sanitation orders. If an individual under quarantine is shown to no longer pose a public health risk, they may be released prior to end of court ordered period.
Arkansas Ark. Stat. Ann. §§ 14-262-101 to 109 (2009)
Ark. Stat. Ann. §§ 20-7-109 (1997)

Arkansas State Health Board Rules and Regulations, Communicable Diseases,
Section X (2002)Authority. The Director of the Department of Health has control over all quarantine measures. The State Health Board establishes rules and regulations regarding quarantine and isolation. County or district health departments have the power and duty to establish and enforce quarantine or isolation when it is necessary for public health. Cities can create health boards and appoint a health officer, with jurisdiction five miles beyond city limits in the event of a quarantine for an epidemic. Both county and city health authorities must assist state Department of Health and the Health Board. Only the state Director can implement a quarantine on movement between jurisdictions. Ark. Stat. Ann. Code § 20-15-710 (1963)Penalties. For those under mandated treatment for tuberculosis, disorderly conduct can be punished with confinement up to six months and those who leave or attempt to leave without being discharged are guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by confinement of six to twelve months. Ark. Stat. Ann. § 20-15-703 to 704 (1975)Police Power and Limitations. If a health officer has reasonable grounds to suspect an individual has an active or communicable form of tuberculosis who is not willing to undergo treatment, they may detain the individual for the necessary testing and establish suitable isolation. If suitable local isolation is unavailable, they can petition the court to move the individual to an appropriate state facility.CaliforniaCal. Health & Safety Code § 120175-120250 (1995)Authority. Health officers should take all necessary steps to prevent the spread of a contagious disease within their jurisdiction. Officers are required to enforce quarantine of state Department of Health and cannot enforce a quarantine against another jurisdiction without state approval. Cal. Health & Safety Code § 120275-120305 (1995)Penalties. Anyone who violates or refuses a regulation or order of quarantine is guilty of a misdemeanor. A first offense is punishable by forced compliance with quarantine up to a year and two years probation with a repeat offense punishable by confinement of not more than a year. Cal. Health & Safety Code § 120175-120250 (1995)Police Power and Limitations. In the event of the outbreak of a communicable disease, a health official may have access to all supplies necessary from health providers that can either assist in responding to the outbreak or are implicated in the outbreak. If disinfection of goods or property would be unsafe, officers may destroy items, with proper compensation to owner.ColoradoColo. Rev. Stat. § 25-1-506 (2008)Authority. County, District or Regional Health Departments have the duty to establish and enforce quarantine or isolation and exercise control over property and people within their jurisdiction as is necessary to protect public health. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 25-4-509 (2008)Penalties. Anyone who violates or fails to comply with a quarantine order for tuberculosis is guilty of a misdemeanor and can be forced to comply.ConnecticutConn. Gen. Stat. § 368a-19a-131a (2003)
Conn. Gen. Stat. § 368e-19a-221 (2003)Authority. In the event of a state-wide or regional health emergency, the Governor my authorize the Public Health Commission to quarantine or isolate individuals reasonable suspected as being infected or exposed to a communicable disease. Any town, city, borough or district director of health can issue a quarantine or isolation order if necessary to protect public health Conn. Gen. Stat. § 368a-19a-131a (2003)Penalties. Anyone who violates the provisions of a quarantine order or obstructs those tasked with carrying it out shall be fined no more than $1000 and/or imprisoned for no more than a year. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 368a-19a-131 (b-c) (2003)Police Power and Limitations. Quarantine is only appropriate if it is the least restrictive option to protect public health, individuals in quarantine must be provided access to appropriate medical care and other basic needs. Individuals should be released from quarantine at such a point as they no longer pose a risk of contagion. Commissioners must write an order for quarantine. Those subject to quarantine can challenge this order in court. If an individual refuses to obey a quarantine order, they may be taken into custody and placed into quarantine.DelawareDel. Code Ann. tit. 16 §505 (2002)Authority. The Director of the Division of Public Health or a designee may regulate communicable diseases through isolation or quarantine. The public safety authority shall petition the Superior court for an order granting quarantine. If a physician determines immediate quarantine necessary for public health, petition should be filed within 24 hours. Del. Code Ann. tit. 20 §3136 (2002)Police Power and Limitations. An individual under quarantine or isolation order can request a court hearing to the continued necessity of the order. The burden of proof lies with the public safety authority.FloridaFla. Stat. § 381.0011 (2010)

Fla. Stat. § 381.00315 (2005)

Authority. The State Health Officer is responsible for declaring public health emergencies, under which an order can be given to quarantine individuals who pose a threat to public health. Requires the Department of Health to develop a plan that exclusively uses private and non-state public hospitals to provide treatment to cure, hospitalize, and isolate persons with contagious cases of tuberculosis who pose a threat to the public. Fla. Stat. § 381.0025 (1996)Penalties. Any person who violates quarantine rules or regulations is guilty of a second degree misdemeanor.GeorgiaGa. Code § 31-2-1 (2010)

Ga. Code § 31-2-1 (2009)
Ga. Code § 31-3-2.1 (2002)Authority. The Department of Community Health is empowered to isolate and treat individuals unwilling or unable to observe department rules or regulations for disease suppression and to establish quarantine, isolation or surveillance of people or animals exposed to a communicable disease that affects humans. A County Board of Health and Wellness has the authority to declare and enforce a quarantine. Ga. Code § 31-3-2.1 (2002)Penalties. Violation of rules or regulations related to quarantine powers shall be declared a nuisance or a misdemeanor, as determined by the county governing authority establishing the rule. Ga. Code § 38-3-51 (2009)Police Power and Limitations. Those ordered into quarantine or isolation shall have access to legal representation and can challenge that order in court.HawaiiHawaii Rev. Stat. § 128-8 (1986)
Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 325-8 (2002)
Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 325-32,34 (1993, 1998, 1985)Authority. The Governor, in the event of a civil defense emergency, may require the quarantine of persons affected with a disease that presents a public health risk. The Department of Health can petition the court for a quarantine order, or if necessary for the protection of public health, establish a quarantine, provided they submit a petition to the court. The Department of Health can require immunization against a communicable disease with exceptions based on medical risk and religious objection. Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 325-2 (1988)
Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 325-8 (2002)Penalties. Failure of required medical professionals to report presence of a communicable disease is punishable by fine up to $1,000 per violation. Failure to follow a quarantine order is a misdemeanor. Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 128-8 (1986)
Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 325-8 (2002)Police Power and Limitations. Public safety officials can isolate or close any building that is the source of contamination and provide for the destruction or cleansing of property that is acting as a public nuisance. The Governor can suspend any law which impedes the ability to respond to a civil defense emergency. Subjects of quarantine should have their dignity respected and be kept in the least restrictive environment dictated by public health requirements. They have the right to contest a quarantine order in court.IdahoIdaho Admin. Code § 16.02.10.065 (2008)
Idaho Code § 39-415 (1973)
Idaho Code § 50-304 (1967)
Idaho Code § 56-1003 (2000)Authority.  The state public health administrator has the power to quarantine an individual in the case of a communicable disease and to prevent entry or exit of a household or place by nonauthorized individuals, provided proper notification of the order and identification of least restrictive means of protecting public health. A district health board has identical powers as state officials within a health district. Cities may create a board of health and assign it powers and duties relevant to the control of communicable diseases, within five miles of the city. Idaho Code § 56-1003 (2000)Penalties. Any person who violates an order of isolation or quarantine shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Idaho Admin. Code § 16.02.10.065 (2008)Police Power and Limitations.  Department of health officials may enter property in order to administer or enforce communicable disease duties.IllinoisIll. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 § 2305/2 (2009)
Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 55 § 5/5-20001 (1990)
Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 65 § 5/7-4-1 (1961)
Ill. Admin. Code. 77 § 690.1000 (2008)Authority. The Department of Public Health has supreme authority over declaring new or modifying existing quarantines. A county board of health should be created with responsibility for control of contagious diseases including the use of quarantine for areas within the county not incorporated. Corporate authorities of municipalities have jurisdiction for quarantine extending one half mile beyond corporate limits. Local health authorities shall establish quarantine of contacts of someone suspected of carrying a disease which requires this action. Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 § 2305/2 (2009)Penalties. Anyone who knowingly disseminates false information related to contagious disease or violates a quarantine order is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor. Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 § 2305/2 (2009)Police Power and Limitations. Persons who are or are about to be ordered to be isolated or quarantined and owners of places that are or are about to be closed and made off limits to the public shall have the right to counsel and shall be given written notice of the order. The Department may order physical examinations or tests, provided the tests pose no substantial risk of harm, and vaccinate or treat diseases. They may quarantine or isolate those who do not consent to testing to confirm suspected disease or treatment of identified disease.IndianaInd. Code § 16-19-3-9 (1993)Authority. The Department of Health may establish quarantine and do what is reasonable and necessary to prevent or suppress disease. When a public health emergency exists, the Department can enforce orders within local jurisdiction and exercise all powers of those local health authorities. Ind. Code Ann. § 16-41-9-1.5 (2007)Penalties. A person who knowingly or intentionally violates a condition of isolation or quarantine under this chapter commits violating quarantine or isolation, a Class A misdemeanor.

Ind. Code Ann. § 16-41-9-1.5 (2007)Police Power and Limitations. A local health authority can receive an emergency quarantine order lasting 72 hours if individual is likely to spread disease in time prior to proper notification and hearing for individual.IowaIowa Code § 136.3 (2008)
Iowa Admin. Code § 641-1.9(2) (2009)Authority. The state board of health is the policy making body for the Department of Public Health, and shall advise the Department on issues including quarantine and isolation. The state Department of Health and local boards of health are authorized to impose and enforce quarantine and isolation as the particular situation requires. Iowa Code § 139A.25 (2000)Penalties. A person who knowingly violates a quarantine or isolation rule or lawful order is guilty of a simple misdemeanor. A clinical laboratory that fails to file a mandated report shall be subject to a fine no greater than one thousand dollars per occurrence. Iowa Code § 139.4 (2006)Police Power and Limitations. Area quarantine or isolation must be imposed by the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of disease. A person subject to forced quarantine or isolation may employ, at the person’s own expense, a health care professional of the person’s choice.KansasKan. Stat. Ann. § 14-307 (1923)
Kan. Stat. Ann. § 65-119, 126 (1979)Authority. If a county board of health or local health officer neglects to properly contain a disease, the Secretary of Health and Environment can quarantine any area where the disease threatens to become epidemic. A county or joint board of health shall exercise and maintain supervision over any incidence of communicable disease and enforce provisions pertaining to quarantine and isolation. It shall report existing conditions to the Secretary of Health and Environment. A mayor has jurisdiction, for the purpose of quarantine, extending five miles beyond the corporate limits. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 65-129 (1979)Penalties. Anyone who knowingly conceals a contagious disease or breaks quarantine or isolation is guilty of a class C misdemeanor. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 65-119 (1979)Police Power and Limitations. A county or joint board of health or local health officer can prohibit public gatherings when necessary to control infectious or contagious disease.KentuckyKy. Rev. Stat. § 212.370 (2005)
Ky. Rev. Stat. § 214.020 (2005)Authority. When the Cabinet of Health Services believes there is likely outbreak of an infectious disease, it shall adopt and enforce rules as necessary to prevent introduction or spread of disease including quarantine and isolation. City-county boards of health have exclusive control over enforcement of laws and regulations related to public health, including quarantine.LouisianaLa. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:5,7,15 (1999, 1976, 1976)Authority. The state health officer has exclusive authority to isolate or quarantine to prevent the spread of contagious disease. If a parish becomes infected with a disease to the degree that it threatens to spread to another parish, the state health officer can quarantine that parish. Parish health officers may establish quarantine only with permission of the state health officer and parish legislative body, and shall be supervised by the state health officer. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:6 (2008)Penalties. Whoever violates those provisions of the sanitary code dealing with the isolation or quarantine of communicable disease, or any person having such a communicable disease that may cause a severe health hazard to the community and who, after having been officially isolated or quarantined by any local health officer or by the state health officer or the duly authorized representative of either health officer, violates the provisions of the isolation or quarantine shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars or be imprisoned for not more than two years, or both.

MaineMaine Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 § 802(2) (2005)Authority. In the event of an actual or threatened epidemic or outbreak of a communicable or occupational disease, the department may declare that a health emergency exists and may adopt emergency rules for the protection of the
public health relating to procedures for the isolation and placement of infected persons for purposes of care and treatment or infection control and the establishment of temporary facilities for the care and treatment of infected
persons which shall be subject to the supervision and regulations of the department. Maine Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 § 804 (2) (1989)
Maine Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 § 825 (2005)Penalties. Any person, who neglects, violates or refuses to obey the rules or who willfully obstructs or hinders the execution of the rules, may be ordered by the department, in writing, to cease and desist. In the case of any person who refuses to obey a cease and desist order issued to enforce the rules adopted pursuant to section 802, the department may bring an action in District Court to obtain an injunction enforcing the cease and desist order or to request a civil fine not to exceed $500, or both.

Any person who knowingly and willfully fails to comply with reporting requirements for notifiable diseases or conditions commits a civil violation for which a fine of not more than $250 may be adjudged. Maine Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 § 810 (1989)
Maine Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 26 § 875 (2005)Police Power and Limitations. Upon the department’s submission of an affidavit showing by clear and convincing evidence that the person or property which is the subject of the petition requires immediate custody in order to avoid a clear and immediate public health threat, a judge of the District Court or justice of the Superior Court may grant temporary custody of the subject of the petition to the department and may order specific emergency care, treatment or evaluation.

An employer shall grant reasonable and necessary leave from work, with or without pay, for an employee for reasons related to an extreme public health emergency, with limited exceptions.MarylandMd. Ann. § Code 18-905 (2004)Authority. When the Secretary of Health determines that it is medically necessary and reasonable to prevent or reduce the spread of the disease or outbreak believed to have been caused by the exposure to a deadly agent, may order an individual or group of individuals to go to and remain in places of isolation or quarantine until the Secretary determines that the individual no longer poses a substantial risk of transmitting the disease or condition to the public. If a competent individual over the age of 18 refuses vaccination, medical examination, treatment, or testing under this paragraph, may require the individual to go to and remain in places of isolation or quarantine until the Secretary determines that the individual no longer poses a substantial risk of transmitting the disease or condition to the public. Md. Ann. § Code 18-907 (2002)Penalties. A person who knowingly and willfully fails to comply with any order, regulation, or directive is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to imprisonment not exceeding 1 year or a fine not exceeding $3,000 or both. If a health care facility fails to comply with an order, regulation, or directive the Secretary may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $3,000 for each offense. Md. Ann. § Code 18-906 (2009)Police Power and Limitations. Individuals should be informed of quarantine directive through best means available and have a hearing to contest the directive.

It shall be unlawful for any public or private employer to discharge an employee who is under an order of isolation or quarantine or because of such an order.MassachusettsMass. Gen. Laws ch. 111 § 95 (1907)Authority. If a disease dangerous to the public health breaks out in a town, or if a person is infected or lately has been infected therewith, the board of health shall immediately provide such hospital or place of reception and such nurses and other assistance and necessaries as is judged best for his accommodation and for the safety of the inhabitants, and the same shall be subject to the regulations of the board. The board may cause any sick or infected person to be removed to such hospital or place, if it can be done without danger to his health; otherwise the house or place in which he remains shall be considered as a hospital, and all persons residing in or in any way connected therewith shall be subject to the regulations of the board, and, if necessary, persons in the neighborhood may be removed. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 111 § 105 (1902)Penalties. If a physician or other person who is in any of the hospitals or places of reception mentioned in section ninety-five, or who attends, approaches or is concerned with them, violates a regulation of the board of health relative thereto, he shall forfeit not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 111 § 94E, 94G, 95 (1974, 1956, 1907)Police Power and Limitations. When the board of health of a town shall deem it necessary, in the interest of the public health, to require a resident wage earner to remain within such house or place or otherwise to interfere with the following of his employment, he shall receive from such town during the period of his restraint compensation to the extent of three fourths of his regular wages; provided, that the amount so received shall not exceed two dollars for each working day.

The full financial responsibility for the care and treatment of patients hospitalized at the tuberculosis treatment center shall be on the commonwealth. The placing of such financial responsibility on the commonwealth for the patients shall in no way affect the residence or other matters concerning the family or dependents of the patients.

Any person hospitalized at the treatment center may petition the district court which committed him to release him therefrom.MichiganMich. Comp. Laws § 333.2453 (1978)
Mich. Admin. Code § 325.175 (1993)Authority. The local health officer may issue an emergency order to prohibit the gathering of people for any purpose and may establish procedures to be followed by persons, including a local governmental entity, during the epidemic to insure continuation of essential public health services and enforcement of health laws. Emergency procedures shall not be limited to this code.

A physician or other person who attends to a case of communicable disease shall arrange for appropriate barrier precautions, treatment, or isolation if needed to prevent the spread of infection to other household members, patients, or the community. Mich. Comp. Laws § 333.2453 (1978)
Mich. Comp. Laws § 333.5207 (1998)Police Power and Limitations. A local health department or the department may provide for the involuntary detention and treatment of individuals with hazardous communicable disease.

To protect the public health in an emergency, upon the filing of an affidavit by a department representative or a local health officer, the circuit court may order the department representative, local health officer, or a peace officer to take an individual whom the court has reasonable cause to believe is a carrier and is a health threat to others into custody and transport the individual to an appropriate emergency care or treatment facility for observation, examination, testing, diagnosis, or treatment and, if determined necessary by the court, temporary detention.MinnesotaMinn. Stat. §§ 144.12,14 (1987, 1977)
Minn. Rules § 4605.74 (2005)Authority. When necessary the commissioner of the Department of Health may establish and enforce a system of quarantine against the introduction into the state of any plague or other communicable disease by common carriers doing business across its borders.

The physician attending a case, suspected case, or carrier (or in the absence of a physician, the commissioner) shall make certain that isolation precautions are taken to prevent spread of disease to others. Minn. Stat. §§ 144.12,14 (1987, 1977)
Minn. Stat. §§ 144.419, 4195, 4196 (2009)Police Power and Limitations. The department’s agents may board any conveyance used by such carriers to inspect the same and, if such conveyance be found infected, may detain the same and isolate and quarantine any or all persons found thereon, with their luggage, until all danger of communication of disease therefrom is removed.

Isolation and quarantine must be by the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of a communicable or potentially communicable disease to others and may include, but are not limited to, confinement to private homes or other private or public premises. Isolated and quarantined individuals must be immediately released when they pose no known risk of transmitting a communicable or potentially communicable disease to others.

Before isolating or quarantining a person or group of persons, the commissioner of health shall obtain a written, ex parte order authorizing the isolation or quarantine from the District Court of Ramsey County, the county where the person or group of persons is located, or a county adjoining the county where the person or group of persons is located.

An employer shall not discharge, discipline, threaten, or penalize a qualifying employee, or otherwise discriminate in the work terms, conditions, location, or privileges of the employee, because the employee has been in isolation or quarantine.MississippiMiss. Code Ann. § 41-23-5 (1983)
Miss. Code Ann. § 41-3-15 (2007, repealed in 2010)Authority. The state department of health shall have the authority to investigate and control the causes of epidemic, infectious and other disease affecting the public health, including the authority to establish, maintain and enforce isolation and quarantine, and in pursuance thereof, to exercise such physical control over property and individuals as the department may find necessary for the protection of the public health.

The State Board of Health shall have authority: To direct and control sanitary and quarantine measures for dealing with all diseases within the state possible to suppress same and prevent their spread. Miss. Code Ann. § 41-23-1, 2, 27 (2000, 1988, 1983)Penalties. Failure by a medical professional to report a communicable disease is grounds for loss of medical license. Any person who shall knowingly and willfully violate the lawful order of the county, district or state health officer where that person is afflicted with a life-threatening communicable disease or the causative agent thereof shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding $5,000 or by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not more than five years, or by both.

Any person knowingly violating any rule or regulation promulgated by the state board of health, related to quarantine for sexually transmitted diseases, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be punished by fine or imprisonment or both.MissouriMo. Rev. Stat. § 79.380 (1969)
Mo. 19 CSR 20-20.050 (2008)Authority. The City Council or Board of Alderman may make regulations and pass ordinances for the prevention of the introduction of contagious diseases in the city, and for the abatement of the same, and may make quarantine laws and enforce the same within five miles of the city.

The local health authority, the director of the Department of Health or the director’s designated representative shall require isolation of a patient or animal with a communicable disease, quarantine of contacts, concurrent and terminal disinfection, or modified forms of these procedures necessary for the protection of the public health. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 192.320 (1978)Penalties. Any person or persons who shall leave any isolation hospital or quarantined house or place without the consent of the health officer having jurisdiction, or who evades or breaks quarantine or knowingly conceals a case of contagious, infectious, or communicable disease, or who removes, destroys, obstructs from view, or tears down any quarantine card, cloth or notice posted by the attending physician or by the health officer, or by direction of a proper health officer, shall be deemed guilty of a class A misdemeanor.MontanaMont. Code Ann.  § 50-1-204 (2003)
Mont. Code Ann.  § 50-2-116, 118 (2007)
Mont. Code Ann.  § 50-18-107 (1989)Authority. The department may adopt and enforce quarantine measures against a state, county, or municipality to prevent the spread of communicable disease. If found necessary or desirable to protect public health, state and local health officers or their authorized deputies or agents shall isolate or quarantine persons who refuse examination or treatment. Local boards may quarantine persons who have communicable diseases. Local health officers or their authorized representatives shall establish and maintain quarantine and isolation measures as enacted by the local board of health. Mont. Code Ann.  § 50-1-204 (2003)Penalties. A person who does not comply with quarantine measures shall, on conviction, be fined not less than $10 or more than $100. Mont. Code Ann. § 50-17-105 (2001)Police Power and Limitations. The department or a local board may apply for an order from the district court if a person is reasonably suspected to have or to have been exposed to tuberculosis. The application must request that the person be ordered to:
(a) submit to an examination for tuberculosis and, if the person is found to have tuberculosis, to complete an approved course of treatment; or
(b) enter or return to a treatment location to complete an approved course of treatment.NebraskaNeb. Rev. Stat. § 14-219 (1976)
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 71-501 (2007)
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 81-601 (2007)Authority. The mayor shall have such jurisdiction over all places within three miles of the corporate limits of the city, for the enforcement of any health and quarantine ordinance or the regulations thereof.

The county boards of the counties shall make and enforce regulations to prevent the introduction and spread of contagious, infectious, and malignant diseases in their respective counties. To that end a board of health shall be created, consisting of three members. The sheriff shall be chairperson and quarantine officer.

The Department of Health and Human Services shall have general supervision and control over matters relating to public health and sanitation and shall have supervision over all matters of quarantine and quarantine regulations. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 71-506 (1994)Penalties. Any person violating any of the provisions of section 71-501 and 71-502 shall be guilty of a Class V misdemeanor for each offense.NevadaNev. Rev. Stat. § 439.360 (2003)
Nev. Rev. Stat. § 441A-160 (2003)Authority. The county board of health may establish and maintain an isolation hospital or quarantine station when necessary; restrain, quarantine and disinfect any person sick with or exposed to any contagious or infectious disease that is dangerous to the public health; and appoint quarantine officers when necessary to enforce a quarantine.

A health authority may issue an order requiring the isolation, quarantine or treatment of any person or group of persons if he believes that such action is necessary to protect the public health.

Most of the city charters contain a provision giving the city council the authority to establish rules on quarantine within their jurisdiction. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 441A-180 (1989)Penalties. A person who has a communicable disease in an infectious state shall not conduct himself in any manner likely to expose others to the disease or engage in any occupation in which it is likely that the disease will be transmitted to others. A person who violates the provisions after service upon him of a warning from a health authority is guilty of a misdemeanor. Nev. Rev. Stat. § 439.360 (2003)
Nev. Rev. Stat. § 441A-160 (2003)Police Power and Limitations. The county board of health shall provide whatever medicines, disinfectants and provisions which may be required, and shall arrange for the payment of all debts or charges so incurred from any funds available, but each patient shall, if he is able, pay for his food, medicine, clothes and medical attendance.

A health authority may enter private property at reasonable hours to investigate any case or suspected case of a communicable disease and order any person whom he reasonably suspects has a communicable disease in an infectious state to submit to any medical examination or test which he believes is necessary to verify the presence of the disease. The order must be in writing and specify the name of the person to be examined and the time and place of the examination and testing, and may include such terms and conditions as the health authority believes are necessary to protect the public health.New HampshireN.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 141-C:4, 5 (1995)Authority. The commissioner shall establish, maintain, and suspend isolation and quarantine to prevent the spread of communicable diseases and order persons who pose a threat to the life and health of the public to receive such treatment and care as necessary to eliminate the threat.

Health officers shall assist the commissioner, when requested to do so, in the establishment and maintenance of isolation and quarantine in their respective cities and towns, and enforce all rules adopted by the commissioner relative to isolation and quarantine. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 141-C:21 (1986)Penalties. Any person who shall violate, disobey, refuse, omit or neglect to comply with any of the provisions of RSA 141-C, or of the rules adopted pursuant to it, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor if a natural person, or guilty of a felony if any other person. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 141-C:11, 14, 15 (2002)Police Power and Limitations. Isolation or quarantine shall be by the least restrictive means necessary to protect the citizenry which, in the case of an individual, shall be at a place of his or her choosing unless the commissioner determines such place to be impractical or unlikely to adequately protect the public health. The commissioner may, in ordering isolation or quarantine of persons, require that treatment be obtained

Any person subject to an order for submission of a specimen, or for examination, immunization, treatment, isolation, quarantine, provision of information, or inspection of a building or conveyance may request a hearing in the superior court to contest such order.

The cost of treatment and care shall be a cost to the person, or his parent or guardian, or, if such person is indigent, from such public funds available for such purposes.New JerseyN.J. Stat. § 26:4-2 (2005)Authority. In order to prevent the spread of disease, the state department of health, and the local boards of health within their respective jurisdictions and subject to the state sanitary code, shall have power to maintain and enforce proper and sufficient quarantine, wherever deemed necessary. N.J. Stat. §§ 26:4-129 (1918)Penalties. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, a person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter, or fails to perform any duty imposed by this chapter at the time and in the manner provided, shall be liable  to a penalty of not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars for each  offense. N.J. Stat. §§ 26:4-3 (1893)Police Power and Limitations. Whenever the state department or a local board, in order to prevent the spread of communicable disease, destroys any goods, the state treasurer or local treasurer, as the case may be, shall pay to the owner of the goods, or his legal representatives, the sum so certified.New MexicoN.M. Stat. Ann. § 24-1-3
N.M. Stat. Ann. § 12-10A-8Authority. The Department of Health has authority to establish, maintain and enforce isolation and quarantine. The department of health may establish or require isolation or quarantine of any animal, person, institution, community or region.

The secretary of health may isolate or quarantine a person as necessary during a public health emergency, using the procedures set forth in the Public Health Emergency Response Act. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 12-10A-19 (2005)Penalties. The secretary of health, the secretary of public safety or the director may enforce the provisions of the Public Health Emergency Response Act by imposing a civil administrative penalty of up to five thousand dollars ($5,000) for each violation of that act. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 12-10A-8
N.M. Stat. Ann. § 12-10A-16 (2003)Police Power and Limitations. Isolation or quarantine shall be by the least restrictive means necessary to protect against the spread of a threatening communicable disease or a potentially threatening communicable disease to others and may include confinement to a private home or other private or public premises.

A person isolated or quarantined pursuant to the provisions of the Public Health Emergency Response Act has the right to refuse medical treatment, testing, physical or mental examination, vaccination, specimen collections and preventive treatment programs.

An employer or an agent of an employer shall not discharge from employment a person who is placed in isolation or quarantine.New YorkN.Y. Public Health Law § 2100 (1953)Authority. Every local board of health and every health officer may provide for care and isolation of cases of communicable disease in a hospital or elsewhere when necessary for protection of the public health. N.Y. Public Health Law § 2122 (1953)Penalties. Any person who has  been  committed  to  a  hospital or institution pursuant to the provisions of section two  thousand one hundred twenty of this  chapter,  who  thereafter  willfully  violates  the  rules  and  regulations  of the institution or repeatedly  conducts himself in a disorderly manner may be taken before a magistrate  by the order of the chief medical officer of the institution. The chief medical officer of the institution may enter a  complaint  against  such  person for disorderly conduct and the magistrate, after a  hearing and upon sufficient evidence of  such  disorderly  conduct,  may  commit  such  person  for  a  period  not  to  exceed  six months to any  institution to which persons convicted of disorderly  conduct,  vagrancy  or similar violations are committed. N.Y. Public Health Law § 2120 (1953)Police Power and Limitations. The magistrate after due notice and a hearing,  if  satisfied  that  the  complaint  of  the  health  officer  is  well  founded and that the  afflicted person is a source of danger to others, may  commit  the  said  person  to  any  hospital  or  institution  established  for the care of  persons suffering from any such communicable disease  or  maintaining  a  room, ward or wards for such persons.North CarolinaN.C. Gen. Stat. § 130A-41, 45.5, 45.6, 145 (1999, 1997, 1997, 2004)Authority. The State Health Director and a local health director are empowered to exercise quarantine and isolation authority. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 130A-145 (2004)Police Power and Limitations. Quarantine or isolation can be imposed for 30 days. The individual so restricted can challenge the order in superior court. The period of restriction can be increased a further 30 days if still necessary for protection of public health by petition to the superior court.North Dakota N.D. Cent. Code § 23-07-06 (1989)
N.D. Cent. Code § 23-07.6-02 (1989)
N.D. Cent. Code § 23-35-12 (1999)Authority. The state health officer or any local health officer may order any person or group into confinement by a written directive if there are reasonable grounds to believe that the person or group is infected with any communicable disease, the state health officer or local health officer determines that the person or group poses a substantial threat to the public health, and confinement is necessary and is the least restrictive alternative to protect or preserve the public health.

Whenever a local board of health knows that a case of a contagious or infectious disease exists within its jurisdiction, the board immediately shall examine the facts of the case and may adopt such quarantine and sanitary measures as in its judgment tend to prevent the spread of such disease. N.D. Cent. Code § 23-07.6-02 (1989)Penalties. Persons subject to isolation or quarantine shall obey the health officer’s rules and orders and must not go beyond the isolation or quarantine premises. Failure to obey these provisions is a class B misdemeanor.

A person, other than a person authorized by the state or local health officer, must not enter isolation or quarantine premises. Failure to obey this provision is a class B misdemeanor. N.D. Cent. Code § 23-07.6-03 (1989)Police Power and Limitations. The state or a local health officer, within that officer’s jurisdiction, may temporarily isolate or quarantine an individual or groups of individuals through a written directive if delay in imposing the isolation or quarantine would significantly jeopardize the health officer’s ability to prevent or limit the transmission of a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others.

At a hearing conducted under this chapter, the health officer who ordered confinement has the burden of showing by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent is infected with a communicable disease, poses a substantial threat to the public health, and that confinement of the respondent is necessary and is the least restrictive alternative to protect or preserve the public health.OhioOhio R.C. § 3701.13 (2005)
Ohio R.C. §§ 3707.08, .15 (1953, 1999)Authority. The Department of Health shall have supervision of all matters relating to the preservation of the life and health of the people and have supreme authority in matters of quarantine, which it may declare and enforce, when none exists, and modify, relax, or abolish, when it has been established.

When a person known to have been exposed to a communicable disease declared quarantinable by the board of health of a city or general health district or the department of health is reported within its jurisdiction, the board shall at once restrict such person to his place of residence or other suitable place, prohibit entrance to or exit from such place without the board’s written permission in such manner as to prevent effective contact with individuals not so exposed, and enforce such restrictive measures as are prescribed by the department.

Any person that employs an alien who is not legally present in the United States and has a contagious or infectious disease contracted before or during employment shall pay to the municipal corporation, township, or county in which the alien is employed any expense caused by the contagious or infectious disease. Ohio R.C. §§ 3707.09, 31 (1953)Police Power and Limitations. The board of health of a city or general health district may employ as many persons as are necessary to execute its orders and properly guard any house or place containing any person affected with or exposed to a communicable disease declared quarantinable by the board or the department of health. The persons employed shall be sworn in as quarantine guards, shall have police powers, and may use all necessary means to enforce sections 3707.01 to 3707.53, inclusive, of the Revised Code, for the prevention of contagious or infectious disease, or the orders of any board made in pursuance thereof.

When great emergency exists, the board of health of a city or general health district may seize, occupy, and temporarily use for a quarantine hospital a suitable vacant house or building within its jurisdiction.OklahomaOkla. Stat. tit. 63 §§ 1-502, 504 (1963, 2008)Authority. The State Board of Health shall have authority to adopt such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with law, as it deems necessary to aid in the prevention and control of communicable disease.

Whenever a local health officer determines or suspects that a person has a communicable disease, he may impose a quarantine on the place or premises where such person usually stays, and notice thereof shall be given in accordance with the rules and regulations of the State Board of Health. Okla. Stat. tit. 21 § 1195 (1910)Penalties. Every person who having been lawfully ordered by any health officer to be detained in quarantine and not having been discharged leaves the quarantine grounds or willfully violates any quarantine law or regulation is guilty of a misdemeanor.OregonOr. Rev. Stat. § 433.121 (2007)Authority. The Public Health Director or a local public health administrator may issue an emergency administrative order causing a person or group of persons to be placed in isolation or quarantine if the Public Health Director or the local public health administrator has probable cause to believe that a person or group of persons requires immediate detention in order to avoid a clear and immediate danger to others and that considerations of safety do not allow initiation of the petition process set out in ORS 433.123. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 433.121, 140 (2007)Police Power and Limitations. Isolation or quarantine must be by the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of a communicable disease or possibly communicable disease to others or to limit exposure to or contamination with a toxic substance by others, and may include, but is not limited to, confinement to private homes or other public or private premises.

The Department of Human Services may provide general assistance, including medical care for the person who is isolated or quarantined, on the basis of need, provided that no payment shall be made for the care of any such person in or under the care of any public institution or public agency or municipality.PennsylvaniaPa. Code tit. 28 § 27.60 (2002)Authority. The Department or local health authority shall direct isolation of a person or an animal with a communicable disease or infection; surveillance, segregation, quarantine or modified quarantine of contacts of a person or an animal with a communicable disease or infection; and any other disease control measure the Department or the local health authority considers to be appropriate for the surveillance of disease, when the disease control measure is necessary to protect the public from the spread of infectious agents.Rhode IslandR.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-8-4,18, 21

(2003, 1956, 1956)Authority. If the state director of health, or his or her duly authorized agent, determines, upon investigation, that a threat to the public health exists because any person is suffering, or appears to be suffering, from a communicable disease, the director or his or her authorized agent may cause that person to be confined, in some proper place, for the purpose of isolation or quarantine, until the threat to the public health has abated.

The power to establish quarantine in this state shall also be vested in the governor; and whenever the governor shall deem it advisable for the preservation of public health and the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases, he or she may, by proclamation, place under quarantine the whole state or that portion of the state that he or she may deem necessary, and he or she shall authorize and empower the state director of health to take any action and make and enforce any rules and regulations that may be deemed necessary to prevent the introduction and to restrict the spread of infectious diseases in the state.

It shall be the duty of the several city and town councils to require their officers to enforce the rules and regulations mentioned and referred to in this section within their respective cities and towns. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-8-7, 21 (1967, 1956)Penalties. Any person who is confined by the director or his or her authorized agent under the provision of § 23-8-4 and who violates that confinement shall be punished by a fine of not more than fifty dollars ($50.00) or by imprisonment for not more than ninety (90) days, or both.

Any person knowingly violating any of those rules and regulations so made and established shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than fifty dollars ($50.00) or be imprisoned not more than two (2) years. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-8-1.1, 4 (1990, 2003)Police Power and Limitations. Persons under eighteen (18) years of age may give legal consent for testing, examination, and/or treatment for any reportable communicable disease.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent a person who is unable or unwilling for reasons of health, religion, or conscience to undergo immunization or treatment from choosing to submit to quarantine or isolation as an alternative to immunization or treatment.South CarolinaS.C. Code Ann. § 44-4-530 (2008)
S.C. Code Ann. § 44-1-80 (2002)Authority. During a public health emergency, DHEC may isolate or quarantine an individual or groups of individuals.

The Board of Health and Environmental Control or its designated agents shall investigate the reported causes of communicable or epidemic disease and shall enforce or prescribe such preventive measures as may be needed to suppress or prevent the spread of such diseases by proper quarantine or other measures of prevention, as may be necessary to protect the citizens of the State. All sheriffs and constables in the several counties of this State and police officers and health officers of cities and towns shall aid and assist the Director of the Department of Health and Environmental Control and shall carry out and obey his orders, or those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control, to enforce and carry out any and all restrictive measures and quarantine regulations that may be prescribed. S.C. Code Ann. § 44-4-530 (2008)Penalties. A person subject to isolation or quarantine must comply with DHEC’s rules and orders, and must not go beyond the isolation or quarantine premises. Failure to comply with these rules and orders constitutes a felony and, upon conviction, a person must be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 44-4-530, 540 (2008)Police Power and Limitations. An employer may not fire, demote, or otherwise discriminate against an employee complying with an isolation or quarantine order; however, nothing in this section prohibits an employer from requiring an employee to use annual or sick leave to comply with such an order.

DHEC may temporarily isolate or quarantine an individual or groups of individuals through an emergency order signed by the commissioner or his designee, if delay in imposing the isolation or quarantine would significantly jeopardize DHEC’s ability to prevent or limit the transmission of a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others. Within ten days after issuing the emergency order, DHEC must file a petition for a court order authorizing the continued isolation or quarantine of the isolated or quarantined individual or groups of individuals, for a maximum of thirty days per granted order.South DakotaS.D. Codified Laws Ann. § 34-1-17 (1995)Authority. The Department of Health may adopt and enforce orders and rules necessary to preserve and protect the public health and may regulate, control, and, in proper cases, prohibit and suppress: The treatment in hospitals and elsewhere of persons suffering from communicable diseases, the disinfection and quarantine of persons and places in case of such disease, and the reporting of sickness and deaths therefrom. S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §§ 34-22-5, 6, 18 (1977)Penalties. Every person who intentionally exposes himself or another person infected with any contagious disease in any public place or thoroughfare, except in his necessary removal in a manner not dangerous to the public health, is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

It is a Class 2 misdemeanor for any board, physician, or person to compel another by the use of physical force to submit to the operation of vaccination with smallpox or other virus.

Any person in the State of South Dakota reasonably suspected of being infected with tuberculosis shall accept necessary diagnosis or treatment, or both, and any person who intentionally refuses to accept such diagnosis or treatment, or both, or who fails to follow the reasonable and necessary directives of the State Department of Health issued for the protection of other persons, is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.TennesseeTenn. Code Ann. § 68-1-201 (2006)
Tenn. Code Ann. § 68-2-609 (1985)
Tenn. Code Ann. § 68-9-204 (1977)Authority. The commissioner has the power to declare quarantine whenever, in the commissioner’s judgment, the welfare of the public requires it.

The county health officer is empowered to order the quarantine of any place or person if the county health officer finds that such control is necessary to protect the public health from an epidemic.

No one but the commissioner, a state, municipal, district or county health officer or such person’s duly authorized representative shall establish and terminate isolation or quarantine of persons with infectious tuberculosis. Tenn. Code Ann. § 68-1-203 (1989)Penalties. Any person who willfully disregards or evades quarantine, or violates any rule or regulation made in attempting to prevent the spread of any epidemic disease, commits a Class B misdemeanor.TexasTexas Health and Safety Code § 81.083 (2007)
Texas Health and Safety Code §§ 122.005, 006 (1989)Authority. If the department or a health authority has reasonable cause to believe that an individual is ill with, has been exposed to, or is the carrier of a communicable disease, the department or health authority may order the individual, or the individual’s parent, if the individual is a minor, to implement control measures that are reasonable and necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, and spread of the disease in this state.

The governing body of a Type A general-law municipality may take any action necessary or expedient to promote health or suppress disease, including actions to prevent the introduction of a communicable disease into the municipality, including quarantine rules, and may enforce those rules in the municipality and in any area within 10 miles of the municipality.

A home-rule municipality may adopt rules to protect the health of persons in the municipality, including quarantine rules to protect the residents against communicable disease. Texas Health and Safety Code § 81.085 (2003)Penalties. A person commits an offense if the person knowingly fails or refuses to obey a rule, order, or instruction of the department or an order or instruction of a health authority issued under a department rule and published during an area quarantine under this section. An offense under this subsection is a felony of the third degree. Texas Health and Safety Code § 81.083 (2007)Police Power and Limitations. The state, a county or a hospital district shall pay for medical expenses if individual is indigent and cannot pay and if that individual is not eligible for benefits under an insurance contract.UtahUtah Code Ann. § 26-6b-3 (2008)Authority. The department, or the local health department having jurisdiction over the location where an individual who is subject to supervision is found, may issue an order for the individual’s temporary involuntary treatment, quarantine, or isolation. Utah Code Ann. § 26-6b-3.3 (2008)Police Power and Limitations. In addition to the rights of an individual described in Subsections (1) and (2), an individual subject to an order of restriction may not be terminated from employment if the reason for termination is based solely on the fact that the individual is or was subject to an order of restriction.VermontVt. Stat. Ann. tit. 18 § 1004 (1979)
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 18 § 1004a (1979)Authority. A physician who knows or suspects that a person whom he has been called to attend is sick or has died of a communicable disease dangerous to the public health shall immediately quarantine and report to the health officer the place where such case exists, but if the attending physician, at the time of his first visit, is unable to make a specific diagnosis, he may quarantine the premises temporarily and until a specific diagnosis is made, and post thereon a card upon which the word “quarantine” should be plainly written or printed. Such quarantine shall continue in force until the health officer examines and quarantines as is provided in this title.

The commissioner of health shall have the power to quarantine a person diagnosed or suspected of having a disease dangerous to the public health. Vt. Stat. Ann. Tit. 6 § 1060 (1973)Police Power and Limitations. Any person in compulsory medical management by order of the court who believes his physical condition is such as to warrant his discharge, if the discharge is refused by the commissioner of health, is entitled to a physical examination by a qualified physician of his own choice. If as a result of examination the physician feels that the continued compulsory medical management is no longer justified and the commissioner of health does not concur in that opinion, the person may appeal by petition to the court issuing the original order for his compulsory medical management.VirginiaVa. Code § 32.1-43 (2004)Authority. The State Health Commissioner shall have the authority to require quarantine, isolation, immunization, decontamination, or treatment of any individual or group of individuals when he determines any such measure to be necessary to control the spread of any disease of public health importance. Va. Code § 32.1-48.014 (2007)Penalties. Any person who does not comply with a validly issued order of quarantine or order of isolation issued or prepared pursuant to this article shall be subject to the penalties including, upon conviction, a Class 1 misdemeanor and payment of civil penalties. Va. Code § 32.1-48.04 (2004)Police Power and Limitations. Any order for isolation in the person’s home or another’s residence or an institution or other place shall be valid for no more than 120 days, or for a shorter period of time if the Commissioner or his designee, or the court upon petition, determines that the person no longer poses a substantial threat to the health of others. Orders for isolation in the person’s home or another’s residence may be enforced through the use of electronic devices.WashingtonWash. Rev. Code §43.20.050 (2010)

Wash. Rev. Code §70.28.031 (1996)Authority. The state board of health is required to adopt rules for the imposition and use of isolation and quarantine. Each health officer is hereby directed to use every available means to ascertain the existence of, and immediately to investigate, all reported or suspected cases of tuberculosis in the infectious stages within his or her jurisdiction and to ascertain the sources of such infections. In carrying out such investigations, each health officer is hereby invested with full powers of inspection, examination, treatment, and quarantine or isolation of all persons known to be infected with tuberculosis in an infectious stage or persons who have been previously diagnosed as having tuberculosis and who are under medical orders for treatment or periodic follow-up examinations. Wash. Rev. Code §70.28.033 (1996)Penalties. Inasmuch as the order provided for by RCW 70.28.031 is for the protection of the public health, any person who, after service upon him or her of an order of a health officer directing his or her treatment, isolation, or examination as provided for in RCW 70.28.031, violates or fails to comply with the same or any provision thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, in addition to any and all other penalties which may be imposed by law upon such conviction, may be ordered by the court confined until such order of such health officer shall have been fully complied with or terminated by such health officer, but not exceeding six months from the date of passing judgment upon such conviction. Wash. Rev. Code §70.28.032 (1996)Police Power and Limitations. The state board of health shall adopt rules establishing the requirements for due process standards for health officers exercising their authority to involuntarily detain, test, treat, or isolate persons with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis that provide for release from any involuntary detention, testing, treatment, or isolation as soon as the health officer determines the patient no longer represents a risk to the public’s health.West VirginiaW. Va. Code §§ 16-3-1, 2 (1977)Authority. The state director of health is empowered to establish and strictly maintain quarantine at such places as he may deem proper and forbid and prevent the assembling of the people in any place, when the state director of health or any county or municipal health officer deems that the public health and safety so demand.

The county board of health of any county may declare quarantine therein, or in any particular district or place therein, whenever in their judgment it is necessary to prevent the spread of any communicable or infectious disease prevalent therein, or to prevent the introduction of any communicable or infectious disease prevailing in any other state, county or place, and of any and all persons and things likely to spread such infection. W. Va. Code § 16-3-2 (1977)Penalties. Every person who shall fail or refuse to comply with any order made by such board under this section, and every person summoned as such guard who shall, without a lawful excuse, fail or refuse to obey the orders and directions of such board in enforcing said quarantine, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than two hundred dollars. W. Va. Code § 16-3-1 (1977)Police Power and Limitations. The state director of health shall have power to enter into any town, city, factory, railroad train, steamboat or other place whatsoever, and enter upon and inspect private property for the purpose of investigating the sanitary and hygienic conditions and the presence of cases of infectious diseases, and may, at his discretion, take charge of any epidemic or endemic conditions, and enforce such regulations as the state board of health may prescribe. All expenses incurred in controlling any endemic or epidemic conditions shall be paid by the county or municipality in which such epidemic occurs.WisconsinWis. Stat. § 252.06 (1) (2003)Authority. The department or the local health officer acting on behalf of the department may require isolation of the patient, quarantine of contacts, concurrent and terminal disinfection, or modified forms of these procedures as may be necessary and which are determined by the department by rule. Wis. Stat. § 252.06(4)(b)2 (2003)Penalties. A violation of a quarantine order is subject to a fine not to exceed $10,000 or imprisonment not to exceed 9 months, or both. Wis. Stat. § 252.06(10)(a) (2003)Police Power and Limitations. Expenses for necessary medical care, food and other articles needed for the care of the infected person shall be charged against the person or whoever is liable for the person’s support.WyomingWyo. Stat § 15-1-103 (2009)
Wyo. Stat § 35-1-240 (2008)
Wyo. Stat § 35-4-104 (1991)Authority. Powers and duties allow the local board of health to establish quarantine ordinances.

The department of health, through the state health officer, or under his direction and supervision, through the other employees of the department, shall have and exercise the following powers and duties to establish, maintain and enforce isolation and quarantine, and in pursuance thereof, and for such purpose only, to exercise such physical control over property and over the persons of the people within this state as the state health officer may find necessary for the protection of the public health.

In case of the existence of any infectious or contagious disease that is a menace to public health, or of any epidemic of any such disease, the state health officer may, if he deems proper, proceed to the locality where such disease exists, and make such investigation as is necessary to ascertain the cause thereof, and in case of quarantine established by the county health officer, the state health officer shall have power after close personal inspection, to modify or abrogate any or all quarantine regulations after the same have been established. Wyo. Stat § 35-4-105 (1997)Penalties. Any person or persons confined in any quarantine established in this state under the provisions of this act who shall escape therefrom or attempt to escape therefrom, without having been dismissed upon the certificate or authority of the county health officer may be charged with a crime. Upon conviction of a violation of this section, a person may be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500.00) or imprisonment for not more than one (1) year. Wyo. Stat §§ 35-4-102, 112 (1957, 2003)Police Power and Limitations. The respective counties of the state shall not be liable for the payment of any claim for service rendered by any physician in the treatment of contagious diseases, unless such treatment shall be for the care of indigent persons who are a public charge.

Any person who has been quarantined pursuant to this act may appeal to the district court at any time for release from the quarantine.District of ColumbiaD.C. Code Ann. § 7-2304 (2004)Authority. The mayor, upon declaring a state of emergency, may detain for medical reasons, those for whom there is probable cause of infection by communicable disease. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2307 (1981)Penalties. Violation of an emergency executive order is punishable by a fine of no more than $1000.GuamGuam Code Ann. tit. 10 § 19602 (2000)Authority. The public health authority may isolate or quarantine any person whose refusal of medical examination or testing results in uncertainty regarding whether that person has been exposed to or is infected with a contagious or possibly contagious disease, or otherwise poses a danger to public health. Guam Code Ann. tit. 10 § 19604 (2000)Penalties. Persons subject to isolation or quarantine shall obey the public health authority’s rules and orders; and shall not go beyond the isolation or quarantine premises. Failure to obey these provisions shall constitute a misdemeanor.

No person, other than a person authorized by the public health authority, shall enter isolation or quarantine premises. Failure to obey this provision shall constitute a misdemeanor. Guam Code Ann. tit. 10 §§ 19604, 19605 (2000)Police Power and Limitations. Isolation and quarantine must be by the least restrictive means necessary to prevent the spread of a contagious or possibly contagious disease to others, and may include, but are not limited to, confinement to private homes or other private and public premises.

Within 10 days after issuing the written directive, the public health authority shall file a petition for a court order authorizing the continued isolation or quarantine of the isolated or quarantined individual or groups of individuals.Puerto RicoP.R. Laws tit. 24, chapter 21 § 351 (1912)Authority. That the Secretary of Health may cause to be removed to proper places designated by him any person sick with a quarantinable disease, or any other rapidly spreading, contagious or infectious disease, and shall have the control of public hospitals for the treatment of such cases. P.R. Laws tit. 33, chapter 105 § 1392 (1951)Penalties. Any person who violates the terms of any proclamation issued by the Governor, in accordance with law and in relation to public health, or who violates any quarantine, sanitary, or other regulations issued by the Secretary of Health or by any other person, body or board, always under authority of law, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and punished accordingly. P.R. Laws tit. 24, chapter 21 § 351 (1912)Police Power and Limitations. He may cause proper care and attention to be given to the sick persons removed to the hospitals, at the expense of the Commonwealth Government, as herein provided for, when it comes to his knowledge that such persons are too poor to defray the expenses of their attendance, or when it is necessary to take care of them in the interests of the public health. For the purpose of carrying out the duties prescribed by this section, the Secretary of Health, or any duly authorized physician employed in the Department of Health, may enter, at any time into private properties and dwellings for the inspection or examination of such premises.U.S. Virgin IslandsV.I Code tit. 19, chapter 1 §§ 1, 2Authority. The Commissioner of Health may by regulation declare any disease to be a communicable disease, and may prescribe the procedure which is to be followed by the patient or person suffering therefrom, the parents of the patient, the householder, the physician attending the patient, or any individual brought into contact with or responsible for the care or maintenance of the patient, in order that the transference of the disease to other individuals may be prevented. This includes quarantine or isolation of the patient, of any persons who have been exposed to the patient and therefore liable to have contracted the disease, or of any carrier of the disease. The regulations shall become effective upon approval by the Governor.

 

Sources: Trust for America’s Health, 2004; NCSL, 2010.


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LEAF [ The Health Benefits of Juicing Raw Cannabis ]

From Medical Jane Zach Reichard  

January 19, 2013

http://www.medicaljane.com/2013/01/19/cannabis-the-foundation-of-health/#

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Arizona Facing New Medical Marijuana Legal Challenge

http://azdailysun.com/news/local/state-and-regional/state-facing-new-medical-marijuana-legal-challenge/article_57453c0c-3005-11e4-b6c3-0019bb2963f4.html
PHOENIX — State health officials are facing a new legal challenge over a provision in the voter-approved Medical Marijuana Act that bars those who live within 25 miles of a dispensary from growing their own plants.

The lawsuit filed in Maricopa County Superior Court contends that giving some the right to grow but not to others is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/equal_protection

Billy B. Hayes, who is not at attorney but filed the legal papers on behalf of himself and others, also contends the system gives dispensary operators a monopoly in violation of state constitutional provisions.

Hayes, a resident of El Mirage, wants Judge Arthur Anderson to rule that all of the more than 50,000 medical marijuana patients in Arizona are eligible to grow their own plants without fear of prosecution. And recognizing the case could take months, if not longer, Hayes is asking Anderson to block state health officials from enforcing the no-grow provisions while the lawsuit is proceeding.

The 2010 voter-approved Arizona Medical Marijuana Act allows those with specified medical conditions and a doctor’s recommendation to obtain up to 2 1/2 ounces of the drug every two weeks. And the law required the state to set up a system of privately run but state regulated dispensaries to sell the drug.

But the law also says those not within 25 miles could grow up to 12 plants of their own. Initially, that meant all marijuana patients, as there were no dispensaries when the law was approved. But state health officials, in renewing the annual permits for users, have rescinded their growing privileges when a dispensary opened nearby.

Health Director Will Humble acknowledged the law does create a disparity between those who can continue to grow their own drugs and those forced to purchase what they need from a dispensary. But he said the argument is not with him or his department, but with the people who crafted the 2010 initiative — and the voters who decided they wanted a restrictive system limiting use for medical purposes.

“The voters were told that this is a dispensary-based system that has inventory controls to prevent diversion of marijuana to non-cardholders,” he said. “That the program we delivered.”

Humble said this lawsuit seeks to undermine that with more of a free-for-all approach.

“One of the fundamental things that you lose in that kind of a system are the inventory controls that prevent diversion of marijuana to non-cardholders,” he said.

“When somebody’s growing 12 of their own plants in their own house, they could share it with anybody, not legally,” Humble continued. “But for all practical purposes, the inventory controls are lost.’

Humble said he’s not a lawyer and cannot address the legal questions being raised.

“But I can tell you we’re going to go toe-to-toe with the plaintiffs on this case and defend the law that the voters approved,” he said.

This is not the first challenge to the 25-mile restriction.

Last year Maricopa County Superior Court Judge Katherine Cooper rejected arguments by two men that the limit on growing marijuana violated a state constitutional provision which guarantees patients the right to decide their own health care. She also said nothing in the law forces them into any compulsory program.

But Cooper may have provided the roadmap for this lawsuit.

“The 25-mile provision does appear to create two groups of Arizona Medical Marijuana Act participants based on residence,” she wrote. But Cooper said the two men never raised that issue and she would not rule “in a vacuum as to its validity.”

No date has been set for a hearing.

 

***Note from Anna: Arizona voters you have been flat-out betrayed. Don’t get mad, get even. Vote out the traitors.

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97th Annual Arizona Tax Conference October 8-10, 2014 in Tucson

October 8-10, 2014
JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort
Tucson AZ

http://events.r20.constantcontact.com/register/event?oeidk=a07e9mp5jpea43919ec&llr=fljn4vdab

Co-sponsored by the Arizona Department of Revenue and the Arizona Association of Assessing Officers

http://www.azdor.gov/

Join tax and public policy professionals from across Arizona at the 97th Annual Arizona Tax Conference.

This year’s conference features timely presentations on topics of interest to Arizona’s tax professionals and many concurrent sessions that enable the attendee to customize their conference experience.  

 Check out the schedule of events here.  

Register Now!

Cancellation Policy

Occasionally, unforseeable work demands prevent registrants from attending this event, even though they have registered. In such instances, it is essential that the registrant CANCEL their registration in writing. Cancellations must be directed to: Vicki Chappel at vchappel@azdor.gov. Registering for but not attending the conference is not a form of cancellation.

  • Cancellations received on or before September 8, 2014 will receive a full refund.
  • Cancellations received September 9-19, 2014 are subject to a $100 cancellation fee. In instances where payment is outstanding, you will receive an invoice for the cancellation fee.
  • No refunds will be given for cancellations received on or after September 20, 2014. 

Lodging Accommodations

J.W. Marriott Starr Pass Resort

To book your room you may call: 1.877.622.3140 or 1.506.474.2009

or book your hotel room online at the conference rate please click here. 

To receive the conference room rate, please specify that you are attending the “Arizona State Tax Conference“. 

You may guarantee your room with a major credit card. 

Hotel Rate: $86 + tax

All reservations must be made by September 26, 2014 to secure the conference rate.

Hotel Cancellations must be made a minimum of 72 hours in advance. 

***Note from Anna***

Arizona MMJ dispensaries and retail/MMJ farmers please stay on top of your tax laws. Don’t get blindsided by the IRS.

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Overdose Of Prescription Drug Oxycodone Even Deadlier Than Heroin

By Pooja Bhagat | International Business Times  August 31, 2014 8:57 PM EST

http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/564650/20140831/oxycodone-opioid-drug-overdose-awareness-day.htm#.VATUp6NhBki

Shocking revelations about oxycodone, which is a commonly used opioid painkiller, have emerged during the Overdose Awareness Day held on Sunday. As per the report released by National Coronial Information Systems, oxycodone has even surpassed notorious drug heroine with respect to being the deadliest opioid drug in Australia.

During the span of five years from 2007 to 2011, more than 3000 deaths have been recorded due to overdose on this opioid-based prescription medicine. This number has surpassed the deaths caused in the same span of time by heroin overdose.

As per the report, about three quarters of all opioid drug deaths are results of an overdose, particularly when these drugs were taken with other deadly narcotics and/or alcohol.

The acting CEO of Penington Institute, Wendy Dodd, shared some serious concerns with Herald Sun.com over these revelations. Penington Institute is a non-profit organization, which works closely with the issue of problematic drugs. “Heroin deaths appear to be declining which is great news, but pharmaceutical overdoses are rising alongside spiralling prescription rates,” she said.

Oxycodone is commonly used as a pain killer. It is a kind of narcotic pain medication. Another potentially dangerous medical drug identified is Fentanyl. It is available under the brand names Actiq, Duragesic, Lazanda and Sublimaze. This drug is mainly given to patients experiencing moderate to severe pain and who are already on opioid medications.

International Overdose Awareness Day is a global affair, which happens every year on August 31. It aims to raise the awareness of drug overdose and its fatal effects.

http://www.overdoseday.com/

Some of the points discussed in relation to oxycodone and other opioid drugs are mentioned in the following:

  • As per the data provided to Penington institute by Australian Bureau of Statistics, deaths are occurring every day due to drug overdose in Australia.
  • Overdoses even out-numbered the road fatalities in 2012. As per the statistics, overdose deaths totalled 1,427 in 2012, while road deaths, which have been steadily declining, ended the year at 1,338.
  • Oceania, which includes Australia and New Zealand, has a higher than the world average drug mortality rate. The UNODC said there were between 1,600 and 1,900 drug-related deaths in 2012.

To contact the editor, e-mail: editor@ibtimes.com

***Note from Anna: In America marijuana is considered more dangerous than Oxycodone.

http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ds.shtml

Schedule I

Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Schedule I drugs are the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are:

heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote

Schedule II

Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, less abuse potential than Schedule I drugs, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are:

cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin

Schedule III

Schedule III drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence. Schedule III drugs abuse potential is less than Schedule I and Schedule II drugs but more than Schedule IV. Some examples of Schedule III drugs are:

Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with codeine), ketamine, anabolic steroids, testosterone

Schedule IV

Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are:

Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien

Schedule V

Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes. Some examples of Schedule V drugs are:

cough preparations with less than 200 milligrams of codeine or per 100 milliliters (Robitussin AC), Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica, Parepectolin

 

From  Drugrehab101.com:

http://www.drugrehab101.com/articles89.html

“…The 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) revealed that 3,000,000 people over the age of 11 had tried OxyContin® for a nonmedical purpose, and 615,000 people tried OxyContin® for nonmedical use for the first time in 2004. But oxycodone is well in the public eye because it has widespread legal use, with 38,100,000 prescriptions in 2005, of which over 19% were for OxyContin®.

The 2006 Monitoring the Future Study revealed these figures for 2005 nonmedical use of OxyContin® by teens:

Nonmedical Use of OxyContin® by Students for the Year 2005

Grade

Percentage of Students

8th grade

1.8%

10th grade

3.2%

12th grade

5.5%

The use of oxycodones depends to a certain extent on the particular drug in question. Oxycodone is available in the U.S. as an oral solution, as tablets, and as extended release tablets. Combined with acetaminophen, it is available as an oral solution, as capsules, and as tablets. Combined with aspirin, it is available as a tablet.

OxyContin®, available as a time-release tablet, may be used intact, or crushed and chewed, snorted, or dissolved in water and then injected. The products that combine oxycodone with acetaminophen or aspirin are also abused orally.

Opioids, including Oxycodone, carry the risk of addiction, which is why they are “scheduled” drugs. They are abused both in overdoses when prescribed and used outside of prescriptions to get high, often accompanied with alcohol.

As early as the 1920s, oxycodone sold as Eukodal, was reported to create a “striking euphoria,” and its euphoric effects have been sought since.”

Other desired effects include:

  • euphoria
  • pain-killing properties
  • reduced anxiety
  • relaxation

Unsought effects include:

  • addiction
  • overdose

How is Oxycodone Used, Stats and Effects Sources:

  • emedicine.com
  • whitehousedrugpolicy.gov
  • drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov
  • nlm.nih.gov
  • deadiversion.usdoj.gov
  • prescription-drug-rehab.com

 

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8/14 Colorado Marijuana Workshop for State and Local Public Health- Recording and Materials

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/cdphe/marijuana-workshop-state-and-local-public-health

Elyse Contreras Retail Marijuana Program & Medical Marijuana Research Grant Program

Programs Coordinator
P 303.692.6455 | F 303.782.0904
4300 Cherry Creek Drive South, Denver, CO 80246
elyse.contreras@state.co.us
We hosted the Marijuana Workshop for State and Local Public Health on Aug. 14, 2014. 
 

Agenda

Presentations:

 

Medical Marijuana Registry – Natalie Riggins

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Natalie%20Riggins%20presentation.pdf

Medical Marijuana Research Grants Program – Ken Gershman

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Ken%20Gershman%20presentation.pdf

Retail Marijuana: Health Effects Surveillance – Tista Ghosh

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Tista%20Ghosh%20presentation.pdf

Retail Marijuana Public Helath Advisory Committee & Occupational Health and Safety Work Group – Mike Van Dyke

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Mike%20VanDyke%20presentationV2.pdf

WIC Surveillance – Jill Bonczynski, Tri-County Health Department

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Jill%20Bonczynski%20Presentation.pdf

Laboratory Contaminant Testing – Laura Gillim-Ross

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Laura%20Gillim-Ross%20presentation.pdf

Perspective of a marijuana insider handouts – Max Montrose

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Max%20Montrose%20Handout.pdf

Perspective of a marijuana insider PowerPoint presentation – Max Montrose

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-Max%20Montrose%20presentation.pdf

Perspectives of a recommending physician – Joe Cohen

Office of Behavioral Health Community Prevention Programs and Statewide Efforts – Stan Paprocki, Colorado Department of Human Services

 

Public Health Prevention Services – Ali Maffey, CDPHE and Heath Harmon, Boulder County Public Health

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/CHEIS-ALI-MAFFEY-PRESENTATION.pdf

 

***Note from Anna. Please take the time to read this information.

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